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Former Monsanto Lawyer Hired by FDA as Key Advisor 11/19/2009 A former lobbyist and Monsanto employee who is credited with playing an instrumental role in introducing genetically modified milk and known carcinogens into the U. instant online payday loans S. Food supply has been hired as a key advisor for the FDA. Michael Taylor has been hired to advise Margaret Hamburg, the FDA's commissioner.

Search Marine Debris Info/101 Impacts Types and Components Sources Movement Great Pacific Garbage Patch Plastic Debris FAQs Japan Tsunami Debris FAQs Marine Debris Factoids De mystifying the Click here to download our 1 pager on the garbage patches ( 1.1mb). Click here to download a 1 pager on the NOAA Marine Debris Program's projects related to the garbage patches ( 1.5mb). Frequently Asked Questions What are the Where are the Are the the only areas where marine debris concentrates What is the difference between the Or are they the same thing How big are the What is the main debris type found in these patches Can you see the with satellite photos Is debris cleanup feasible in the and other areas of our oceans Is there a in the Atlantic Ocean Literature Cited Acknowledgement NOTE: This map is an oversimplification of ocean currents and features in the Pacific Ocean. There are numerous factors that affect the location, size, and strength of all of these features throughout the year, including seasonality and El Nino/La Nina. Depicting that on a static map is very difficult. What are the The For more information on this type of debris visit our page on plastics . What is a misnomer. There is no island of trash forming in the middle of the ocean nor a blanket of trash that can be seen with satellite or aerial photographs. This is likely because much of the debris found here is small bits of floating plastic not easily seen from a boat. (top) Where are the Eastern Pacific garbage patch Concentrations of marine debris have been noted in an area midway between Hawai The High is not a stationary area, but one that rotates, moves, and changes. Western Pacific garbage patch There is a small however it may be caused by winds and ocean eddies (clockwise or counter clockwise rotating waters). Research is ongoing by academia such as the University of Hawaii and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, to further understand the true nature of and forces behind these recirculation gyres. (top) Are the Pacific the only areas where marine debris concentrates The are not the only open ocean areas where marine debris is concentrated. Another important area is the North Pacific is the Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ). This area, located north of the Hawaiian archipelago, has a high abundance of marine life, is a known area of marine debris concentration, and is one of the mechanisms for accumulation of debris in the Hawaiian Islands (Pichel et al., 2007). Oceanographic features similar to the North Pacific Subtropical High and STCZ exist in other oceans of the world. Little research to date has been conducted on marine debris in these areas. Because of this no one can say for sure how large these areas are, especially since they move and change, sometimes daily, and no accurate estimate exists of how much debris is out there. Regardless of the exact size, mass, and location of these areas of concentration, man made litter and debris do not belong in our oceans or waterways. See below and our page on Marine Debris Movement for more information. North Pacific Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ) The STCZ is located along the southern edge of an area known as the North Pacific Transition Zone (click here for detailed information on the Transition Zone). Pichel et al., 2007). This area does not have distinct boundaries and varies in location and intensity of convergence throughout the year. This zone moves seasonally between 30It is less well defined and located more northerly during the summer months, when convergence tends to be weaker, and is sharper and located farther south during winter months, when convergence is stronger. North Pacific Subtropical Convergence Zone as a mechanism for accumulation of marine debris in Hawaii: The Hawaiian Archipelago, extending from the southernmost island of Hawaii 1,500 miles northwest to Kure Atoll, is among the longest and most remote island chains in the world. In Hawaii, marine debris continues to present a hazard to marine habitat, safe navigation, and wildlife, including the endangered Hawaiian monk seal ( Monachus schauinslandi ) and various species of sea turtles, seabirds, and whales. It is the location of this archipelago, between 18o (Donohue and Foley, 2007). (top) What is the difference between the Or are they the same thing A gyre is a large scale circular feature made up of ocean currents that spiral around a central point, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. This, of course, is a ballpark estimate. This is equivalent to approximately three times the area of the continental United States (3 million square miles). While a gyre may aggregate debris on a very large scale, debris patches, as seen by those sailing the North Pacific, are actually the result of various smaller scale oceanographic features such as oceanic eddies and frontal meanders (think of meanders as the deviation from a straight line. As energy (wind/currents) hit the front there are undulations and which are described as frontal meanders (movements to the north and south along the front)). (top) How big are the The reported size and mass of these of debris in this expansive area would make a statistically sound survey quite labor intensive and likely expensive. Again, regardless of the exact size, mass, and location of the manmade debris does not belong in our oceans and waterways. (top) What is the main debris type found in these patches Plastics. Likely because of the abundance of plastics and the fact that some common types of plastic float. (top) Can you see the with satellite photos NO. Relative to the expanse of the North Pacific Ocean, sightings of large concentrations of debris, especially of large debris items are not very common. (top) Is debris cleanup feasible in the and other areas of our oceans The answer to this is not as simple as you may think. It is certainly not cost effective to skim the surface of the entire ocean. Even a cleanup focusing on would be a tremendous challenge. Keep in mind these points: Concentration areas move and change throughout the year These areas are typically very large (see below) The marine debris is not distributed evenly within these areas Modes of transport and cleanup will likely require fuel of some sort Most of the marine debris found in these areas is small bits of plastic This all adds up to a bigger challenge than even sifting beach sand to remove bits of marine debris. In some areas where marine debris concentrates, so does marine life (as in the STCZ). This makes simple skimming the debris riskymore harm than good may be caused. Remember that much of our ocean life is in the microscopic size range. For example, straining ocean waters for plastics (e.g., microplastics) would capture the plankton that are the base of the marine food web and responsible for 50% of the photosynthesis on Earth Also, keep in mind that our oceans are immense areas! The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean on the planet covering nearly 30% of EarthW, requires covering approximately 1 x 106 km2. If you traveled at 11 knots (20 km/hour), and surveyed during daylight hours (approximately 10 hours a day) the area within 100m off of each side of your ship (Mio et al., 1990), it would take 68 ships one year to cover that area! Now, add to that the fact that these areas of debris concentration have no distinct boundaries, move throughout the year, and are affected by seasons, climate, El Nino, etc. (top) Is there a Much like in the Pacific, there is a North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre made up of four major currents e.g., western garbage patch) in the Atlantic. There has been research conducted and published on marine debris in the Atlantic, mainly on ingestion in Atlantic species of sea turtles and seabirds or on nearshore trawls for plastic particles. (top) Literature Cited Donohue, M. and D. Foley. 2007. Remote sensing reveals links among the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, marine debris, and El Nio. Marine Mammal Science 23(2):468 473. Kubota, M. 1994. A mechanism for the accumulation of floating marine debris north of Hawaii. Journal of Physical Oceanography 24:10591064. Law, K., S. Moret Ferguson, N. Maximenko, G. Proskurowski, E. Peacock, J. Hafner, and C. Reddy. 2010. Plastic Accumulation in the North Atlantic Subtopical Gyre. Science Express. 19 August 2010 issue. Mio, S.I., S. Takehama, and S. Matsumura. 1990. Distribution and density of floating objects in the North Pacific based on 1987 sighting survey. In: R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, Editors, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris2246 Honolulu, Hawaii. Morishige, C., M. Donohue, E. Flint, C. Swenson, and C. Woolaway. 2007. Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990 2002. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54: 1162 1169. Pichel, W., J. Churnside, T. Veenstra, D. Foley, K. Friedman, R. Brainard, J. Nicoll, Q. Zheng, and P. Clemente Colon. 2007. Marine debris collects within the North Pacific Subtropical Convergence Zone . Marine Pollution Bulletin 54: 1207 1211. (top) Acknowledgement This information was compiled with the input and assistance of NOAA researchers, Hawaii longline fishermen, recreational boaters, Seba Sheavly (Sheavly Consultants), and in particular oceanographers with the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center. (top) Revised August 04, 2011 Contact Us Disclaimer Site Index Privacy Policy FOIA Information Quality USA.gov Web site owner: NOAA Marine Debris Program Office of Response and Restoration National Ocean Service National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U.S. Department of Commerce

The new PCB: Monsanto's Roundup weed killer turning up in air, rain and rivers 9/27/2011 Last month, the US Geological Survey (USGS) released a report showing that air, rainwater and rivers across the Midwest US agricultural belt are routinely contaminated with high levels of glyphosate, a pervasive herbicide produced by biotechnology giant Monsanto. And according to some, Monsanto has.

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